Farming

Thank You Mom For Making Harvest Look Easy

My mom always told me that in a marriage, sometimes someone was giving 150% to help your spouse through. In farming, those wise words couldn’t be truer.

My mom always prepared large harvest meals for our family. The gentleman who did our custom combining for us, along with my dad, and siblings, would all come in and sit around the kitchen table each night for about 45 minutes with an amazing meal that my mom prepared.

Everything from roast beef or pork roast with mashed potatoes, corn, squash, fresh homemade bread, and always dessert, usually a homemade apple pie or brownies would be waiting for us. My dad always took that time to stop what he was doing in the field and come in for supper. Luckily for us, growing up, all of our fields were relatively close in proximity to our home farm which made it possible.

I often think about my mom running us kids to sports and other activities, getting laundry done, some years working a job in-town, others being a stay-at-home mom. She always made sure my dad had a thermos of coffee and breakfast before heading to work in town or to the fields. She did a lot during planting and harvest, for all of us.

My mom always went above and beyond for our family during those tough spring and fall seasons on the farm.

She taught me that I was capable of anything. That being strong and independent was just part of the farming lifestyle. Taking my daughter to her doctor’s appointments, gymnastics lessons, grocery shopping, the museum, etc. all by myself would just be part of this new season of my farming life, and it is one she showed me how to do with grace on a daily basis.

Sometimes, it is those that are behind the scenes in harvest that are the unsung heroes. The ones we don’t see pictures of driving tractor or combine, but instead are folding laundry, tucking kids in at night, cooking meals for harvest crews, feeding livestock, or sitting down to pay all the bills each night. They keep the home running while someone is in the tractor from 7am to midnight, and do their best to give a few comforts of home during that time.

When you are a farming family, it truly takes a team to make it all work. It may mean that one of you gives 150% for a while to keep it all going. This is the industry we live and breathe.

So thank you Mom, for all you did for our farming family growing up. You made it look easy, and I never thanked you enough. And for teaching me that sometimes a hot thermos of coffee and fresh cookies are the best thing you can send with your husband when he’s going to spend 16 hours in the tractor, thank you for that too.

-Sara

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Farm Safety – Always Worth Thinking About

Farm safety is something that continues to be at the forefront of my mind now with Harper in the mix.

Recently, in a neighboring town, a little girl wandered off into her family’s cornfield. Luckily, she was found after about 8 hours. I can’t even begin to imagine the worry, heartache and then relief that family felt throughout the ordeal.

I can remember my parents always telling me find a row and keep walking until you reach the end or a road if I ever got lost in one of our fields. I honestly, can’t say I really remember ever playing in any of our fields, yet the thought of how quickly an incident like this could happen to any farm momma weighs on my heart.

Farm kids grow up faster. They have responsibilities that most won’t have until they are 10 or 12 or maybe even 16 by the age of 5 or 6 a lot of times. I think of how Harper isn’t even 3 and she knows how to feed her chickens, pig, and give treats to her “neigh-neighs.” She collects eggs from the chickens, can haul the bucket back to the garage and place them in the carton to go in the fridge. She knows how to water the plants, has her own wheelbarrow and work gloves, and helps in the garden.

Harper having a nice chat with her pig.

Sometimes it never ceases to amaze me what she already know and all she does. We are a working farm and safety issues do happen. Simple things that I would have never thought twice about before I am over-cautious of now. Things such as making sure the bucket is all the way down on the tractor before letting her anywhere near it if we are hauling rock.

One thing I personally won’t let her do is let her ride on a lawn mower. At least not until she is old enough to actually drive it herself, and I can pass on the task of mowing the lawn to her. It irks me to no end when I see people on Facebook posting photos of tiny babies and toddlers riding on lawn mowers with their parents or grandparents. It takes one bump or quick stop for that kiddo to be under the blade. It just isn’t something I want to risk or encourage even if the blade isn’t engaged or it is just flat ground. A shift in family culture can be difficult, but can be necessary for the sake of safety.

Sometimes it is very hard when I am working out in the yard and she decides to wander to the other side of the house. I frequently have to stop what I am doing, go get her and bring her back or stop all together because she refuses to come back. Having a watchful eye on my kiddo gives me a heart attack and is frustrating all at the same time. I know I struggle with not being able to go out and help Mark with everything because I have to ensure Harper’s safety first and foremost.

As harvest in Minnesota really gets into full swing, after about a three-week delay due to rain, I know many farmers, including us, will have late nights, be moving equipment, and generally working longer hours in an effort to make up for lost time. Sometimes I fear a simple mistake may be made. Someone is in a rush or is over tired, and misses a simple safety step. It happens.

We don’t have OSHA standards in farming or a big sign up that says 159 days since the last incident in a shop. Most farms probably don’t have a protocol in place in case an emergency was to happen. It is one of the reasons I still maintain my emergency medical responder license – to be prepared in case an incident happens.

Safety isn’t something to take lightly.

-Sara

Martin County Ag Tour

A Day Celebrating Agriculture in Martin County

When you work in agriculture, it is easy to get pigeon holed into what you know or what you do on a daily basis. We are primarily cash crop farmers with a few livestock and honeybees. I grew up with various livestock on a feedlot scale, but the technology, techniques, housing, and practices have changed tremendously since I was younger, or what is on our farm since we are small-scale.

Martin County Ag Tour

We were greeted with our agenda for the day & Corn Niblets from Sunshine Suzy LLC! They were delicious and a perfect snack on the bus. You can find them at local Hy-Vee stores in the Martin County area.

It is one of the reasons I jump on any chance to learn more about agriculture in Minnesota and what my fellow farmers are doing. I was recently invited to spend the day in Martin County, about an hour from the Mankato area, learning about agriculture and its impact on the county. It was followed by a dinner called From the Ground Up – hosted by Project 1590. I am going to try to highlight a few of my takeaways (even as a person working in the industry) that I learned.

  1. Devenish Nutrition – I’m going to be honest, I didn’t even know this company existed until visiting their US Headquarters in Fairmont as part of this tour. They call themselves an agritechnology company that provides nutritional solutions to livestock – their business is generally 40% poultry 35% swine, 20% ruminant, and various livestock complete the rest. They are headquartered and founded in Ireland, and a connection with the Fairmont vet clinic brought them over to the Fairmont area. They have grown from 23 employees to 400, and do business in over 30 countries! They did say it can be a challenge to attract new talent to the community, but it was refreshing to see many of the employees were local to the area and have settled their with their families. Although I could probably go on and on about this company – I was fascinated – the things that struck me the most was their commitment to research. They have their own research barns, as well as barns contracted with farmers, to ensure their findings are real-world applicable. They are also doing research in if feeding animals superior feed, meaning you get a superior chicken breast or pork chop at the store, if and how that impacts human health. Pretty cool!

    Devenish Nutrition

    I am still in awe of all this company is doing since their expansion into the United States.

  2. Hen-Way Manufacturing – A farmer with a problem who created his own solution and the businesses exploded from there. That is the easiest way to describe this family built business. He was a hog farmer himself who couldn’t find the equipment he needed for the new barn styles, so he started building it himself, and pretty soon others started noticing, and ordering! This company also invested in their own solar panels to reduce their electric bill by 2/3 of what it was. But I think what I most enjoyed about this stop was the way the owner Lonny, talked about his family. He didn’t start off about the company or the products, but rather explained how they made it all work for their kids and grandkids to live nearby, work with them, and farm with them. He and his wife will be married 50 years this year. He was a man who made you want to do business with him.

    Hen-Way Manufacturing

    Welding was a skill that was in high demand at Hen-Way Manufacturing. As someone who used to promote careers in agriculture for a job, hearing their need for welders and those willing to work was something I understood.

  3. Elm Creek Agronomy – Elm Creek Agronomy is a Pioneer seed dealership and chemical sales company owned by two friends. It was  neat to see how an idea blossomed into a large business who now does soybean seed treatment for an entire region of dealers, including competitors! Here we were treated to lunch complete with high oleic soybean oil potato chips – made from soybeans that are being grown for the first time in Martin County to produce high oleic oil. Pioneer sells the Plenish brand seed that produces a more nutritious, longer lasting, and safer cooking oil!

    Elm Creek Agronomy

    Elm Creek Agronomy installed a new precision seed treater that serves many regional seed representatives.

  4. CHS – We were able to tour the CHS facility by bus with one of their employees. During harvest, they have over 1,500 trucks delivering soybeans per day – so many that they have to use the nearby fairgrounds for overflow! They ship out 50% of their meal by truck and another 50% by rail. Over 10 counties supply them with soybeans, so farmers from all over the region are trucking into this facility. For every bushel of soybean that comes into the plant, they can produce 42 pounds of soybean meal and hulls AND 1 1/2 gallons of soybean oil!
  5. Easy Automation – This company just floored me with where they started and where they are continuing to go. They haven’t been afraid of innovation, expansion and investment to get where they are going! Their company automates the facilities that make livestock feed. They deal in three areas: software, controls, and equipment. Their system allows traceability so they can track every single ingredient in case of a recall, and their systems are extremely accurate. They are currently working to innovate the water purification systems as well as decrease the overall cost of biofuel production with their new businesses. What I found most interesting what their committment to employees and communication in their business. Each employee had posted outside of their office space, the best ways to communicate with them and how they handle situations so you would know how to best interact. They also recently opened up a Mankato office in order to allow those that commute the option to work remotely a few days each week too.

    Easy Automation

    Easy Automation also manufactures equipment along with software and controls.

  6. Windmill Farm – I have always been fascinated by wind power. Mark and I have frequently talked about putting up a small wind turbine with a magnetic motor just to power our future honey house. The windmill farm we toured was huge! It was all because some area farmers got together and decided to invest in this new power generation system. There were different ways and options for area farmers to get involved by leasing land, buying into a turban or investing in the LLC they formed. These wind turbines spin at 188 mph when they are at pull production and have a life expectancy between 20-25 years. What I found interesting was in order to do maintenance on them, they have basically an ultrasound machine that scans the blade with ultrasonic photos to determine any issues! Neat how a system used for medicine crosses over into energy production.

    Windmill

    Windmill Farm in Martin County. In case you are wondering – each one has a lift assist in there to get to the top so you don’t really have to climb all those ladder rungs inside.

  7. Hog Barns – Our last stop on our day full of tours was a hog barn owned by a local 19-year-old. Yes, you read that right. 19 years old. I was still trying to figure out what I wanted to do in life (some days I still am) and this young man in college, had built his own barn and was now leasing it out to an area hog operation. They owned the hogs, he owned the building. His family said it was one way for him to work towards coming home to the farm. The electronics that control feed, water intake, heating and ventilation systems and just about everything else, are all available to check, change, and automate from smartphones and tablets. This allows this young man to attend college and be able to check on how much water the hogs are drinking all at the same time! It was quite impressive!

    hog barn automation

    Discussing the electronics and systems that control the hog barns from an iPad.

Working in a bigger city, I often hear how disconnected consumers are from the farm or rural Minnesota. We need to understand how rural Minnesota is an economic driver for our large cities. Martin County, although rural, is an economic hub full of entrepreneurial spirit that is making an impact at a local, state, national and international level! From opening a second office in Mankato to giving us the pork that is on our BBQ all summer long, we are impacted every single day by the farms and agriculture communities that make up Minnesota.

We ended the night at a dinner event called From the Ground Up, hosted by Project 1590. Project 1590’s mission is to enhance the vitality, livability and health within Martin County. The economic impact and driving force of agriculture within Martin County is very strong, something Project 1590 recognizes and From the Ground Up serves as a fundraising event each year that connects consumers with farmers and their food.

Decor at From the Ground Up

The rustic decor at the tables was gorgeous.

From the Ground Up

Our menus and programs for the evening. Sons of Butchers catered the event – Martin County natives and now a BBQ team.

Food at From the Ground Up

Sons of Butchers BBQ. I even tried the spicy jalapeno sausage and it was actually quite good – even if I had to guzzle water after ;)

The food was amazing, as were the people. One of the farmers I met, I actually had interviewed her sister at my previous job for a story so it was fun to make that connection and learn a little more about their operation through dinner time. It was also fun to learn why people stayed in the community after moving there for a job. At the end of the night, I was wishing I was moving to the Fairmont area after hearing how amazing it was to raise a family there.

It was a beautiful evening full of great food and great conversation. I ended my night by fueling up at a local gas station before making the trek back home, only to be met by faces of cattle starting back at me on the other side of the pumps. It truly was where the county meets the city, and a slice of a thriving rural area that Minnesota shouldn’t take for granted.

At the end of the day, we should all learn a little more about what makes the areas of this state tick and how they are all interrelated. If we start to understand the full circle a bit more, and the impact the agriculture sector has on everything from electronics to the trucking industry, maybe the conversations we have will continue to be about collaboration and moving our communities forward to the future.

Thank you to Martin County, the Project 1590 crew, and all the volunteers for a wonderful day and an eye-opening experience for farm kid/farmer/ag employee who continues to learn all she can about this great industry!

-Sara 

3 Answers To Your Questions About Bees

You’ve got questions? We’ve got answers! Bees always bring up a plethora of questions from what do you feed them, to how do you treat them, to what do you do with them in the winter. They are a very unique livestock that helps produce over $20 billion in products in the U.S. every year.

  1. How many bees are in a hive?

We buy our bees in a 2lb. or 3lb. package when we start a hive. Depending on size of the package, initially a hive starts out with anywhere from 5,000 to 15,000 bees on average. Every hive has three types of bees – a queen, worker or female bees, and then male or drone bees. A hive will contain one queen bee, a few hundred drone bees, and anywhere from 30,000-80,000 worker bees.

 

  1. How much honey does a hive make?

Honestly, it varies every single year. Some years they are great producers, other years they slack a bit. It truly depends on the individual hive. But on average, a hive should produce in the 75lb. to 125lb. range. However, our hives are always left with two deep boxes to feed on throughout the winter.

 

  1. What can we do to help bees?

This one is simple – plant lots of pollinator friendly plants that bloom at various times throughout the growing season! One of my favorites to plant are zinnias. You can also use feeding pollinators as a really good excuse to your significant other when you don’t get to mowing the lawn right away because dandelions often serve as a first source of food for bees. Support local beekeepers and buy your honey from them when you can.

What other questions do you have about raising bees or honey extraction? Leave a comment and hopefully we can help answer your questions!

-Sara

Wildflowers – There Is More To It Than Pretty Blooms

Recently, in a group I belong to on Facebook for beekeepers, someone posted a business card with wildflower seed mixture packet attached in the shape of a bee that a company was handing out. It was pretty clever and cute marketing. Then I got to thinking…what is really in that little bee shaped seed packet and how far is it traveling?

Planting pollinator friendly flowers, shrubs, and trees is blowing up everyone’s social media feeds, yet there is a little more to planting pollinator friendly habitat than one would think.

The original reason I didn’t fully agree with the company’s creative marketing tactic was because business cards travel. Our business cards end up all over the United States, and even the world. We hand them out to people at all sorts of events, mail them in packages, place them with donations, etc. Can you imagine if I planted seeds that originated from another country in the United States, not knowing I had inadvertently brought in a non-native species that isn’t considered a flower here? You are supposed to declare any seeds, soils, etc. going through customs and they should get confiscated as part of the process, but a business card with a seed packet packed away is definitely easy to forget. Minnesota is currently battling palmer amaranth that was brought in through a pollinator friendly planting. I would hate to be that person that planted seeds from a company not knowing that it wasn’t clean seed.

Then I got to thinking about it a bit more. Think about what is really native in terms of wildflowers to the area you live in. For me, it is much different from certain elevations or from one part of the state to the next. If I truly wanted to invest in a pollinator friendly habitat, I would work to find species that were both pollinator friendly and native to my area, as well as hardy for my growing zone. Many gardening centers now specialize in this type of landscaping. When the 30 acres that some of our hives are on was converted to RIM ground, we were able to choose a pollinator friendly habitat mix from the DNR that was specialized for our area. It also made me realize the importance of sourcing seed from my area too. If you are in Minnesota, I highly recommend Albert Lea Seed House for specialized seed mixtures native to Minnesota or working with a local company that specializes in native plantings such as Blazing Star Gardens. We’ve realized the importance of utilizing seed that has inherent genetics to thrive in our area. New research also shows that honey bees prefer blooms in rural areas versus urban areas, so finding out blooms native to your area seems to have increasing importance.

Our hives out on an area that was planted in specific wildflower habitat for our area.

An important and specific item to honey bee health, is understanding the difference between nectar and pollen. Some flowers, vegetables, fruits, trees, and shrubs, require pollination which happens when a bee visits various blooms and transports the pollen on their legs from bloom to bloom. When bees are seeking out blooms to feed off of, they are collecting the nectar to produce honey. Plants vary in the amount of nectar they produce, so it is important to offer a wide variety of nectar producing plants throughout the growing season. Just planting a wildflower mixture, may not actually produce the amounts of nectar that bees need or when they need it most.

Most recently General Mills has been in the news, for giving away wildflower packets of seeds in their #bringbackthebees campaign. Others have posted about whether or not bees are really declining, or ulterior marketing motives, but I’m not really concerned with that. I’m concerned with what happens when a flower such as baby’s breath which is considered a weed in some areas that may be in the packet of flowers, grows in areas where it shouldn’t be planted, and what that can do to other crops or actual native species that are planted.

I love flowers, don’t get me wrong – but planting wildflowers is a little trickier as not everything is native, not everything thrives, and not everything is necessarily even considered a flower depending on your location in the country. The true definition of a weed is a plant out of place.

There are many plants you can plant to help pollinators that will last for the summer in your gardens or flower pots, which you wouldn’t have to worry about coming up every year or potentially spreading and becoming a weed. Flowers like zinnias, cosmos, and marigolds are all simple flowers you could plant around your house and garden instead. When truly establishing a wildflower or native flower area for pollinators, it is best to work with a local source who understands the intricacies of the ecosystem you are planning for.

-Sara

Hello There March

Well hello there March. Nice to see you. Now where did January and February go and how did we get to 2017 already?

Anyone else feel like that?

Our life has been a whirl wind with me starting a new job in January in addition to Mark starting up his own business, Hewitt Precision Insights. Here’s what I can tell you about starting your own business…it might just be more frightening than farming.

Mark is crazy passionate about truly making a farmer’s data work for them, not just giving them another data management platform or connecting to a cloud network to pull data from someday, or maybe not. He is passionate about interpretation of farm data to make sound business decisions, to truly evaluate hybrids, water management systems, to detect crop threats sooner, and to understand and overlay the maps all these systems are producing for farmers. In his words with this new business venture, it doesn’t do any good to keep giving the farmer data without any kind of interpretation or usage. We can upload to the cloud all we want and make everything talk, but if you aren’t going to use the data for timely and precise operating decisions, it doesn’t make much sense to spend the money on those platforms. It has been a little scary navigating a slightly new business ownership world to us – like one without a steady paycheck, but we are moving full speed ahead.

So that happened! I also started my new position at the MN Soybean Growers in early January as a Special Events Coordinator. It has been a whirlwind, and I feel like I haven’t even had time to catch my breath! I am getting used to not having to do everything in essentially a “one man” shop. It has been a fun and busy transition for me.

So what have we been up to on the farm?

Well, in early February, we were awarded the first ever AgStar Groundbreaker’s award! We had zero clue, and looking at others that were being considered, we definitely feel so humbled to have been chosen for the award. We were awarded a monetary prize as part of the Groundbreaker of the Year award which means, we get to build a brand new honey house! We wanted to make sure that we were maximizing our award dollars and giving back somehow with them at the same time, so we have teamed up with the Sibley East FFA Chapter and their instructor, Tim Uhlenkamp to build the honey house. It will serve as a learning opportunity for the students there while they construct and agricultural building and gain hands-on skills that they can continue to use later in life. We are excited for this partnership with them, and look forward to bringing them some honey and teaching them about our extraction process and keeping bees at the same time! We still can’t thank AgStar enough for this opportunity, and for taking a chance on our dreams of farm ownership.

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We officially made the decision to burn down the old barn, and are donating it as a practice structure fire to the Kilkenny Fire Department. The structure unfortunately would cost more to try to renovate it, then it would to put up something new. But we are happy that the fire department will get training out of it, and we will have a larger space for renovating the other two buildings to house cattle.

Farmstead planning 101 is in full force. We sometimes shake our head at the way things are oriented on our farm. We will be making some pasture changes, rerouting our driveway, and adding some additional lawn/yard areas that will more than likely be future bin sites down the road. A few buildings will change, including one that will become an additional loafing shed, and one that will be moved to the back of another shed for tack storage for the horses. We have another shed that we are in the process of getting pricing on for two additions and a new overhead door. We have a spot picked for the honey house to sit as well. We have our work cut out for us outside this year along with a few projects inside the house we plan to finish in March! I cannot wait for a finished kitchen!

Then we have had all the normal things, like selling grain, attending conferences and trainings, seed meetings, insurance meetings, meetings with our FBM instructor, taxes, business calls, pre-pricing fertilizer, meeting with sales reps for various companies, and more. Oh, and throw in a growing rambunctious toddler who will already be two in April, and you end up with some crazy days and nights. Some days you start to wonder how you fit it all in.

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Just one of the many conferences, seminars, and classes we attend over the winter months!

I’m still wondering where 2016 went, so if someone could give me another few months to figure out my 2017 resolutions yet, that would be great! I think my only resolution may be to take actual vacation this year!

-Sara

Planting Non-GMO Soybeans: Value-Added Production

You’ve heard me talk about the benefits of genetically engineered crops before, and why farmers like us choose to use them. You have probably read about our yields we get with planting GE crops (better known as GMO to consumers), what methods of tillage we use, what chemicals we have used, etc. in some of my past posts. We’ve had a lot of people ask us since we are the first ones to stand up for allowing farmers to use GE technology and why we think GMO labeling is silly…

Why Non-GMO soybeans?

First things first, planting Non-GMO soybeans is very, very different from organic farming, and frankly, the two aren’t really alike at all in my opinion. Planting Non-GMO soybeans is more like farming with GE soybeans than most think, but with a few extra quirks and rules to follow. Our non-GMO soybeans are exported and made into tofu. I’m going to touch on a few areas (not all) of why we chose to plant non-GMO soybeans on our farm this year.

  1. Market – There is a better and bigger market for non-GMO, food grade soybeans than ever before. Creating this market has been something that farmers asked for as the need for protein options has risen in other countries. Our soybean growers association has worked hard to capitalize on this development and invest in the research to grow this specialty market over the past few years. New food-grade seed varieties continue to be developed that are higher in certain protein contents or select oils depending on what they will be used for in the end market.
  2. Price – We receive a higher premium for our soybeans because they are a specialty product. We do have to complete a few more tasks with planting non-GM soybeans like carefully cleaning out bins and trucks to avoid contamination and using only certain approved chemicals. We have to sign a contract similar to what one might sign with GE seed, except our contract revolves around identity preservation and the number of bushels we have agreed to grow. As crop prices continue to drop, farmers are looking to find an extra bushel or take off-farm jobs. The price premium on non-GMO soybeans is one of those options for farmers. Typically, the seed costs less than GE seed which means our end cost of production isn’t as high.
  3.  Tillage- I read a post that said that non-GMO farmers use more tillage than conventional farmers due to weeds. We did no more tillage than we do when we plant GE soybeans or GE corn. In fact, we did no-till in some of our fields this year. Again, planting non-GMO is not the same as organics which may rely on additional cultivation or flame weeding. We do have options chemical wise we can use for weeds. We didn’t use anymore chemical than we typically use in a given year, but we did use different kinds because we can’t use glyphosate, for example.
  4.  Bushels –This is always the main question we get. Will my bushels be on par with GE? Possibly. Possibly not. Every field is different based on soil type, nutrients, even weather patterns vary since we have fields in 3 different counties for us. We had hail damage in some fields compared to none in others. Some had standing water while others did not. All of those factors can impact bushels. However, typically we average around 50-55 bushels per field for our non-GMO soybeans, but we have had fields that have reached into the upper 70’s for bushels per acre this year.
  5. Traits – Some of the traits we look for in non-GMO soybeans are the same as what we look for in GE soybeans – resistance to certain fungus, drought tolerance, past performance on bushels per acre, etc. We also pay close attention to oleic concentration, protein concentration and even hilum color because those are the traits looked at for premiums in a food-grade, non-GMO soybean.

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It would be a shame to just say farmers are against GE soybeans, when I don’t think that is the case, and certainly not for us. Capitalizing on new opportunities and markets to create expanded profits and options for farmers is a good thing. You don’t have to plant GE and you don’t have to plant non-GMO. It isn’t for everyone, and how you choose to operate your farm versus your neighbor will be different. It works for us, but it won’t work for everyone. We certainly aren’t dismissing modern technology – in fact, I’d love if every crop was GE and we never had to worry about using a chemical ever, but that isn’t the case.

Farmers will have to continue to evolve with new market trends, new growth markets, and evaluate their current operations in order to succeed. Farmers are finding that planting value-added soybeans can be one of those pathways for their farm to succeed.

-Sara